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Engineering Management: Selection and Evaluation of Projects



Selection of Projects
A typical selection worksheet which includes the factors considered the most is used. The factors to be considered should be relevant to the organization’s environment.

Each project should be graded by more than one qualified person which understands the technical aspects of the project and must have a deep understanding of the organization’s objective and environment.
Scores can be weight in order to provide assistance in the decision of whether to accept or reject a proposal. Scoring and ranking are intended to aid the decision maker, not to make the decision.
The actual selection of project must depend on management’s evaluation of the following questions

  • Does the proposed result meet the long range goals and plans of the organizations?
  • Is the proposed result the type of product, or information, that the organization needs?
  • Does the possible ultimate payoff the justify embarking on the project?

 Note: other considerations are considered as secondary.

After the selection phase, each project should be classified in one of the four category

  • Mandatory. Those projects that are essential for the well being of the organization.
  • Acceptable. These are projects that management is interested in pursuing.
  • Deferred. The projects look interesting and feasible, but are not of immediate interest.
  • Rejected. These projects are of no interest to management now or later.


Evaluation of Projects
For all project, this evaluation consists of

  • Determining the status of the project
  • Deciding whether and how to continue

Status of a new project is based on the data in the proposal and selection work sheet.
It is proposed that management subjectively divide the project into two groups for separate evaluation

  • One group would use the definitions of basic research and applied research.
  • One group would use the definitions of development and technical support.

Basic Assumptions of the system are:

  • A person’s subjective judgment of the relative value between and among projects is more accurate that judgment of an absolute value of any one project.
  • A person’s relative judgment among a few projects is more accurate than evaluation of a large number.


One method of assigning priorities

  1. Ranking. Rank the entire set or projects being evaluated in terms of preference or perceived value of the projected outcomes without assigning quantitative values.
  2. Selecting. Select at a random one project from the set. Let Ps represent the desired outcome of this project.
  3. Subdivide the remaining set of projects by random assignment into groups of no more than five, and preferably into groups of approximately equal size. Each project (other than Ps) should be included in one and only one group.
  4. Add Ps to each group and assign to it a priority value of 1.00 (i.e., priority of Ps=1.00)
  5. For each group, tentatively assign too each project a value that initially seems to reflect the relative value of their proposed outcomes to that of Ps.
  6. Make subjective comparisons of combinations such as Pa vs Pc and Ps. Thus, if the evaluator had the choice of having a successful outcome of Pa or the combination of Pc and Ps, which would be chosen? Suppose the evaluator would rather have Pc and Ps. Then the values of Pa and Pc must be adjusted so that Pa< Pc + Ps. In making adjustments, the value of Ps must not be changed. Continue those comparisons of combinations until the values for each project in the group are consistent for all evaluation.
  7. Compare the rankings obtained for the entire set of projects as obtained by steps 2 to 6 when the groups are recombined with that obtained in step 1. If the rank orders differ, reconsider the ranking from step 1 and, if necessary, proceed again from step 2 to 6 of this procedure.
  8. Once consistent results are obtained, normalize the priorities by dividing the priority assigned to each project by the sum of the priorities assigned to all the projects.
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Understanding Frequency, Amplitude, and Phase Modulation




Frequency Modulation – the amplitude of the carrier is kept constant, frequency and rate of change are varied by the modulating signal

Phase modulation – the amplitude of the carrier is kept constant, phase of the carrier is varied.

Deviation of the carrier is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal

Deviation ratio – the shift in the carrier frequency from its resting point compared to the amplitude of the modulation voltage

Maximum deviation ration – 8 significant sidebands

Deviation – the amount by which the carrier frequency is varied from its unmodulated value of the modulating voltage. The rate at which this frequency variation changes or takes place is equal to the modulating frequency

“The amplitude of the frequency-modulated wave remains constant at all times. (Greatest advantage of FM)”

Observations from frequency spectrum of the FM Wave

  1. AM – has only 3 frequency (carrier and the first two sidebands). FM- has infinite number of sidebands and carrier
  2. J coefficients decrease in value as n increases. J coefficients represents the amplitude of a particular pair of sidebands.The Modulation index determines how many sidebands components have significant amplitudes
  3. Sidebands at equal distances from fc have equal amplitudes, so that sidebands distortion is symmetrical about carrier frequency. J Coefficients have negative values, signifies a 180 phase change for a particular sidebands.
  4. AM – increased depth of modulation increases the sideband power and therefore the total transmitted power. FM – the total transmitted power always remains constant, but with increased depth of modulation the required bandwidth is increased.
  5. FM – the amplitude of the carrier component does not remain constant. It is possible for the carrier component of the FM wave to disappear completely. This happen for certain value of modulation index “EIGENVALUES”

Two types of continuous wave modulation
  1. Amplitude modulation
  2. Angle modulation
Angle Modulation is divided into
  1. Frequency modulation
  2. Phase modulation – not used in practical analog transmission systems
It is possible to obtain FM from PM by “Armstrong System.”
FM
PM
Modulation index – inversely proportional to the modulating frequency

Frequency modulation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating voltage
Fm is a form of PM
The larger the frequency deviation, the larger the phase modulation
Modulation index – inversely proportional to the modulating voltage only.

Phase deviation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
Independent of frequency
Instantenous angular velocity is continually changing between the limits imposed by m
Some form of frequency changes take place
FM and PM are indistinguishable for a single modulating frequency.

When Modulating frequency is changed, the PM modulation index will remain constant while the FM modulating index will increase as modulation frequency is reduced.

PM received by FM system would appear to be lacking in bass. This deficiency is corrected by bass boosting the modulating signal prior to phase modulation. (difference of PM and FM)

FM VS AM

FM
AM
Reception
More immune to noise.
More prone to noise
Noise Reduction
It is possible to reduce noise still further by increasing deviation.
It is not possible to exceed 100% modulation without causing severe distortion.
Standard Frequency Allocation (allocated worldwide by INTERNATIONAL RADIO CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE of the ITU)
Provided a guard band between commercial FM stations, so that there is less adjacent channel interface than in AM

Has more adjacent channel interface
Frequency Operation
Operates in the upper VHF and UHF frequency range(less noise)

It is possible to operate several independent transmitter on the same frequency with considerably less interference than AM.
Operates at MF and HF ranges (more noise)
Power Transmitted
All of the transmitted power is useful.
Most of its transmitted carrier, contains no useful information.
Modulation
Amplitude of the FM wave is constant (independent of modulation depth).
AM modulation depth governs the transmitted power.

Channel Required

A much wider channel is required by FM (10x as large as AM required).

Transmitting and Receiving device

FM transmitting and receiving equipment tends to be more complex, particularly for modulation and demodulation.

Area of reception

Area of reception for FM is much smaller than for AM.

Commercial FM broadcast began in 1940. Decade after AM

A single noise frequency will affect the output of a receiver only if it falls within its bandpass. 

The noise to carrier voltages remains constant, so does the modulation index remain constant. 

The noise voltage modulates the carrier.

Modulation index due to noise remains constant, the modulation index caused by the signal will go on increasing in proportion to the reduction in frequency.

Triangular noise distribution for FM is called NOISE TRIANGLE.

Noise has a greater effect on the higher modulating frequencies than on the lower ones.

If the higher frequencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver, an improvement in noise immunity could be expected, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. This is termed as pre-emphasis.

Compensation at the receiver is called DE-EMPHASIS.

75us – amount of pre-emphasis in US FM and in sound transmission accompanying television.

50us – used in EU and Australian

Wideband FM has been defined as that in which the modulation index normally exceeds unity.

Narrowband FM is used by FM mobile communication.
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Things to do before a Civil Service Examination with recommended study topics




Before the Examination 

Take a typical one or two weeks review. It is recommended to solve 15 - 20 math questions every night.
I personally recommend to review the listed mathematics topic before starting to solve a problem

  1. Multiplication Table
  2. Ratio and Proportion
  3. Operations on Fraction
  4. Laws of Exponent
  5. Completing the square
  6. Solving Equation(Finding X)
  7. Problem Solving Strategy

For English Language review, the only thing that you would need to review is your Subject Verb Agreement. Reviewing the use of whom, who, which, either or, neither nor and others are highly recommended.

As for the Philippine Constitution and RA 6713, Reading and familiarizing the summaries I had made on those topics are enough.  The recommended topics of the constitution are

  1. Article 1
  2. Article 3
  3. Article 4
  4. Article 5
  5. Article 6
  6. Article 7

Never skip a topic on those recommended topics.

On the day of examination

Always do the following

  1. Wake up early. This would avoid you from being late.
  2. Take a light breakfast. Fried egg with 1 cup of rice is just enough.
  3. Don’t review. Just sit and try to remember the things you have memorized.
  4. Don’t be nervous. Trust in God and never doubt in his power.
  5. Don’t be late. There are things that you will need to fill up when you arrived in the examination room.
  6. Don’t forget to buy a candy. This would avoid you from being drain during the exam.
  7. Never take time on solving. Remember that your time is limited.
  8. Skip the things that you have not answered. If you have time when you are finish, try to solve them back.
  9. Never leave blank answered when you pass.
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